The design is expected to form the basis for cars going on sale in 2024 or 2025, although Markus Schafer, the chief technology officer, declined to specify when the 1,000 km-range battery would be ready for production.
“We will likely be the first to show a 1,000 km-range car in real life, with such a small battery,” he said.
Mercedes needed to determine what range buyers expected and how much they are willing to pay before deciding when to start selling a car like the Vision EQXX, Mr Schafer added.
The prototype comes less than two months after Chinese carmaker GAC Group unveiled its Axion LX Plus SUV, which it claims will be able to travel 626 miles on one charge.
In September, California EV start-up Lucid started producing its 500-plus-mile range Air.
Major carmakers have been overhauling their operations to produce electric vehicles in line with the shift away from fossil fuels, with several countries planning to ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars. The UK will ban such sales from 2030.
In July, Mercedes-Benz announced plans to invest more than $47bn (£34bn) by 2030 to take on Tesla and wind down spending on fossil fuel engine technology this decade.
The Vision EQXX also features an interior made using sustainable materials including mushrooms, bamboo, cactus and vegan silk.
“These show that it is still possible to achieve the utmost in automotive luxury without using animal products, whilst creating an inimitable feeling of premium comfort. This fascinating journey has halved the carbon footprint of the leather alone,” Mercedes said.